Water scarcity is a major concern in Pakistan, and the situation is being exacerbated by the

effects of global warming. Rising temperatures and changing weather patterns are having a

significant impact on Pakistan’s water resources, leading to reduced river flows, melting

glaciers, and more frequent droughts. These changes are making it increasingly difficult for

the country to meet the water needs of its growing population, and they are contributing to

the already serious problem of water scarcity in Pakistan. The government and various

organizations are working to address these issues, but the situation remains critical.
Pakistan’s looming water crisis has been in the making for many years as multiple research

studies predict that the country could run out of water by 2025 due to rising water scarcity. A

report by the White House also warns that Pakistan will be one of the most water-stressed

countries in the world by 2040, along with other countries in the region. Despite the gravity

of the situation, the government in Islamabad has shown a lack of attention to this

approaching crisis, which could have broader consequences for food, economics, and

national security if not addressed. To address this crisis, it is crucial for the government to

review and update the 1991 accord on water management to include strategies for water

conservation, governance, storage, and usage.


Water scarcity are affecting agricultural productivity and food security. The agricultural

sector is a major contributor to Pakistan’s economy, and reduced crop yields due to

water scarcity can have a negative impact on the country’s overall economic

performance. Water scarcity is also affecting industries that rely on water, such as

manufacturing and energy production, leading to reduced output and profits.


Additionally, the cost of importing water or developing new sources of water can be

expensive, which can put a strain on the government’s budget. Overall, water scarcity

is a major challenge for Pakistan’s economy and is hindering the country’s economic

growth and development.

The production and consumption of bottled water can contribute to the ongoing

water crisis in several ways. The production of bottled water requires a significant amount of

water, as well as energy and other resources. In addition, the transportation of bottled water

can also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, which can contribute to climate change and

exacerbate the water crisis.
While an estimated 15-20 percent people of Pakistan are purchased the bottled water for

drinking from branded companies. Those companies, instead of paying natural resource

(water), they charge heavy cost of in term of packing material, marketing expenses and profit

margin. An average cost of single water bottle includes 30% production cost, 29%

distribution expense, 15% retailer margin, 17% tax charges and 7-9% of company profit. With

that a huge amount of plastic is used as packing material. The aspect of environmental

pollution and economic cost caused by the use of plastic bottles is being completely ignored.

The plastic bottle cost is high from water cost.


On September 14, 2018, at that time Chief Justice of Pakistan Mian Saqib Nisar took the Suo

Motu Notice of the exploitation of Nature Recourse Water uses by Mineral Water Industry.

In a result, Nov 13th, 2018 Supreme Court can impose the tax of Rs1 per liter on Bottle water

industries to utilize to curb the damage done by the companies.


Besides imposing taxes, governments and organization can support the development and

promotion of alternative options to bottled water, such as reusable water bottles or water

filtration systemsa, and can encourage bottled water companies to adopt more sustainable

and responsible practices, such as using recycled materials for their bottles and minimizing

their water usage and greenhouse gas emissions.


Overall, addressing the negative impacts of bottled water companies will require a

combination of individual and collective action and the implementation of effective policies

and regulations.


Water scarcity can have a number of impacts on Pakistan’s defense. One of the most

significant impacts is the potential for water-related conflicts. As water becomes increasingly

scarce, it is likely that there will be increased competition for access to water resources,

which could lead to conflicts between different groups or regions. These conflicts could

potentially escalate into larger military conflicts, which would have serious implications for

Pakistan’s defense and national security.


In addition to the potential for water-related conflicts, water scarcity can also have a number

of other impacts on Pakistan’s defense. For example, it could affect the military’s ability to

recruit and retain personnel, as soldiers may be more likely to leave the military if they are

unable to access adequate water for themselves and their families. Water scarcity could also

affect the military’s ability to operate effectively, as it could limit access to clean water for

soldiers in the field.
In conclusion, addressing the water crisis in Pakistan will require collective action and the

implementation of effective policies and regulations and it is essential for Pakistan to

prioritize water conservation and efficient management of its water resources in order to

sustain life and economic development in the country. To achieve this, it is necessary to

move beyond blaming infrastructure development and instead focus on improving

governance of the water system. If the water crisis in Pakistan is not addressed, the negative

impacts on the population and the economy will only continue to worsen. It is crucial for the

nation to recognize the importance of water as a vital resource and take proactive steps to

ensure its responsible management.